Parsing Nicodemus’s Words: A Biblical Grammatical Approach to Adult Spiritual Rebirth John 3:4

Stimson Hutagalung, Jimmy Kijai


This research aims to uncover the profound significance and theological consequences of Nicodemus’ inquiry by employing Bible language analysis. This study employs a thorough biblical grammar methodology to examine Nicodemus’ utterance in John 3:4, explicitly focusing on the interrogative line “How can a person be born when he is old?” This study employs theological literature and biblical commentaries to analyze grammatical elements to elucidate Nicodemus’ inquiry’s context and theological importance. Linguistic research indicates that Nicodemus's focus was directed. Nicodemus' inquiry demonstrated genuine sincerity, although it appeared that there was a state of perplexity. The contextual perspective highlights that Nicodemus’ inquiry stemmed from his Pharisaic education, and his status caused him to overlook Him in his questioning initially. Researchers provide an alternative interpretation of Nicodemus' inquiry, suggesting that it may be sarcastic and convey a feeling of superiority. Other researchers argue that Nicodemus fervently articulated his request due to his weak understanding. The ability to accept and study different points of view with an open mind and without prejudice allows for the development of broader knowledge.


Adults; Born Again; Nicodemus’s Question; John 3:4; Spirituality

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