Responsibilities of Students in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic and New Normal period

Ezra Tari, Elisabet Selfina, Queency Christie Wauran

Abstract


The COVID-19 pandemic is occurring worldwide, including in Indonesia. This issue is the responsibility of all parties. In this university, ethics is the responsibility of the academic community. This paper describes the actions of students towards themselves, and the surrounding community is facing humanitarian disasters. Literature studies are used to lay down problems and find solutions. Study critical of student responsibility in higher education. They share with others with love. Its activities are sharing masks and food and conducting blood donations. Small actions that have a significant impact on society during the COVID-19 and New Normal pandemic.


Keywords


COVID-19, responsibility; higher education; New Normal; ethics

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbasi, Sahar, Tahera Ayoob, Abdul Malik, and Shabnam Iqbal Memon. “Perceptions of Students Regarding E-Learning during Covid-19 at a Private Medical College.” Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 36, no. COVID19-S4 (2020): S57–61. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2766.

Abidah, Azmil, Hasan Nuurul H, Roy Simamora, Daliana Fehabutar, and Lely Mutakinati. “The Impact of Covid-19 to Indonesian Education and Its Relation to the Philosophy of ‘Merdeka Belajar.’” Studies in Philosophy of Science and Education 1, no. 1 (2020): 38–49. https://doi.org/10.46627/sipose.v1i1.9.

Ali, Wahab. “Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in Light of COVID-19 Pandemic.” Higher Education Studies 10 (2020): 16. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16.

Allen, Jeanne, Leonie Rowan, and Parlo Singh. “Teaching and Teacher Education in the Time of COVID-19.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. Routledge, May 26, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2020.1752051.

Bavec, Cene. “Social Responsibility and Professional Ethics in Management.” In Social Responsibility, Professional Ethics, and Management, 24–27, 2010.

Bosch, Brennan, and Holly Mansell. “Interprofessional Collaboration in Health Care: Lessons to Be Learned from Competitive Sports.” Canadian Pharmacists Journal. Canadian Pharmacists Association, July 25, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1715163515588106.

Burke, Alison. “Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively.” The Journal of Effective Teaching 11, no. 2 (2011): 87–95.

Cahapay, Michael. “Rethinking Education in the New Normal Post-COVID-19 Era: A Curriculum Studies Perspective,” 2020, 20. https://doi.org/10.29333/aquademia/8315.

Carpenter, Jeffrey, and Jennifer Pease. “Preparing Students to Take Responsibility for Learning: The Role of Non-Curricular Learning Strategies.” Journal of Curriculum and Instruction 7 (2013): 38–55. https://doi.org/10.3776/joci.2013.

Cheng, Kar Keung, Tai Hing Lam, and Chi Chiu Leung. “Wearing Face Masks in the Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Altruism and Solidarity.” The Lancet 0, no. 0 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30918-1.

Chi-Chung Cheng, Vincent, Shuk-Ching Wong, Vivien Wai-Man Chuang, Simon Yung-Chun So, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Siddharth Sridhar, Kelvin Kai-Wang To, et al. “The Role of Community-Wide Wearing of Face Mask for Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic Due to SARS-CoV-2.” Journal of Infection 81 (2020): 107–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.024.

Cook-Sather, Alison. “From Traditional Accountability to Shared Responsibility: The Benefits and Challenges of Student Consultants Gathering Midcourse Feedback in College Classrooms,” n.d.

Crawford, Joseph, Kerryn Butler- Henderson, Jürgen Rudolph, Bashar Malkawi, Matt Glowatz, Rob Burton, Paola A. Magni, and Sophia Lam. “COVID-19: 20 Countries’ Higher Education Intra-Period Digital Pedagogy Responses.” Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching 3, no. 1 (April 1, 2020): 20. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7.

Dhawan, Shivangi. “Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis.” Journal of Educational Technology Systems 49, no. 1 (June 20, 2020): 17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520934018.

d’Orville, Hans. “COVID-19 Causes Unprecedented Educational Disruption: Is There a Road towards a New Normal?” Prospects, 2020, 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09475-0.

Ekici, Ali, Pinar Keskinocak, and Julie Swann. “Modeling Influenza Pandemic and Planning Food Distribution.” Manufacturing &amp Service Operations Management 16, no. 1 (2014): 11–27. https://doi.org/10.1287/msom.2013.0460.

Farías, Pablo. “The Effect of Advergames, Banners and User Type on the Attitude to Brand and Intention to Purchase.” Review of Business Management 20 (2018): 194–209. https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v20i2.3784.

Feng, Shuo, Chen Shen, Nan Xia, Wei Song, Mengzhen Fan, and Benjamin Cowling. “Rational Use of Face Masks in the COVID-19 Pandemic.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8, no. 5 (2020): 436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X.

Ferrier-Kerr, Jenny. “Working Together: Collaborative Strategies for Developing Effective Professional Relationships in the Practicum,” 2012.

Fontaine, Michael. “Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The New Bottom Line?” International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol. 4, 2013.

Fowler, James A. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. United Sates of America: CIY Publishing, 2011.

Fritz, John. “Using Analytics to Nudge Student Responsibility for Learning.” New Directions for Higher Education 2017, no. 179 (September 1, 2017): 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20244.

Galanakis, Charis M. “The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (CoVID-19) Pandemic Crisis.” Foods. MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, April 1, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040523.

Ghosh, Haren, and Amit Bhatnagar. “On Measuring and Increasing the Effectiveness of Banner Advertising.” MIS Review 19, no. 1 (2013): 25–44. https://doi.org/10.6131/MISR.2013.1901.02.

Goel, Mridula, and Preeti E Ramanathan. “ScienceDirect Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility-Is There a Dividing Line?” Procedia Economics and Finance 11 (2014): 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00175-0.

Grashuis, Jasper, Theodoros Skevas, and Michelle Segovia. “Grocery Shopping Preferences during the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Sustainability 12 (2020): 5369. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135369.

“Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penanganan COVID-19.” Accessed July 28, 2020. https://covid19.go.id/.

Gülcan, Nur Yeliz. “Discussing the Importance of Teaching Ethics in Education.” In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174:2622–25, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.942.

Gunduz, Mevlut. “Educational Research and Reviews What Are the Teaching Responsibilities of Being a Teacher?” 11, no. 8 (2016): 623–29. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2643.

Harris, Albert L, Michael Lang, Dave Yates, and S E Kruck. “Incorporating Ethics and Social Responsibility in IS Education.” Journal of Information System Education 22, no. 3 (2019): 187.

Hassel, Stefanie, and Nathan Ridout. “An Investigation of First-Year Students’ and Lecturers’ Expectations of University Education.” Frontiers in Psychology 8, no. 2218 (2018): 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02218.

Hsieh, Nien-Hê. “The Responsibilities and Role of Business in Relation to Society: Back to Basics?” Society for Business Ethics Presidential Address 27, no. 2 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1017/beq.2017.8.

Hyseni Duraku, Zamira, and Linda Hoxha. “The Impact of COVID-19 on Education and on the Well-Being of Teachers, Parents, and Students: Challenges Related to Remote (Online) Learning and Opportunities for Advancing the Quality of Education,” 2020.

Jeder, Daniela. “ScienceDirect Teachers’ Ethic Responsibilities in the Practice of Education and Training.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 92 (2013): 432–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.697.

Kim, Mi-Na. “What Type of Face Mask Is Appropriate for Everyone-Mask-Wearing Policy amidst COVID-19 Pandemic?” J Korean Med Sci 35, no. 20 (May 2020).

Kumar, Sohail, Dua Azim, Sundus Nasim, and Shariq Haider Hashmi. “Dwindling Blood Reserves: An Ominous Downside of COVID-19 Pandemic.” Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102818.

Las Heras-Pedrosa, Carlos De, Pablo Sánchez-Núñez, and Jose Peláez. “Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Understanding during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain and Its Impact on Digital Ecosystems.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020): 5542. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155542.

Lauermann, Fani V. “Teacher Responsibility: Its Meaning, Measure, and Educational Implication,” 2013.

Lazarevaa, Larisa P., and Natalia V. Zavodevkina. “Personal and Professional Responsibilities of Students: Psychological and Pedagogical Factors of Real Opportunities.” IEJME — MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 11, no. 5 (2016).

Lestiyanawati, Rochyani, and Arif Widyantoro. “Strategies and Problems Faced by Indonesian Teachers in Conducting E-Learning System During COVID-19 Outbreak.” Literature, Linguistics and English Teaching) 2, no. 1 (May 31, 2020): 71–82.

Lewnard, Joseph A., and Nathan C. Lo. “Scientific and Ethical Basis for Social-Distancing Interventions against COVID-19.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Lancet Publishing Group, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30190-0.

Liguori, Eric, and Christoph Winkler. “From Offline to Online: Challenges and Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Education Following the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy 3, no. 4 (April 4, 2020): 346–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127420916738.

Liu, Wei, Xiao Guang Yue, and Paul B. Tchounwou. “Response to the Covid-19 Epidemic: The Chinese Experience and Implications for Other Countries.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7 (April 1, 2020): 2304. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH17072304.

Manchanda, Puneet, Jean-Pierre Dube, Khim Goh, and Pradeep Chintagunta. “The Effects of Banner Advertising on Consumer Inter-Purchase Times and Expenditures in Digital Environments.” Journal of Marketing Research 43, no. 1 (2006): 98–108. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.98

Abbasi, Sahar, Tahera Ayoob, Abdul Malik, and Shabnam Iqbal Memon. “Perceptions of Students Regarding E-Learning during Covid-19 at a Private Medical College.” Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 36, no. COVID19-S4 (2020): S57–61. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2766.

Abidah, Azmil, Hasan Nuurul H, Roy Simamora, Daliana Fehabutar, and Lely Mutakinati. “The Impact of Covid-19 to Indonesian Education and Its Relation to the Philosophy of ‘Merdeka Belajar.’” Studies in Philosophy of Science and Education 1, no. 1 (2020): 38–49. https://doi.org/10.46627/sipose.v1i1.9.

Ali, Wahab. “Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in Light of COVID-19 Pandemic.” Higher Education Studies 10 (2020): 16. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16.

Allen, Jeanne, Leonie Rowan, and Parlo Singh. “Teaching and Teacher Education in the Time of COVID-19.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. Routledge, May 26, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2020.1752051.

Bavec, Cene. “Social Responsibility and Professional Ethics in Management.” In Social Responsibility, Professional Ethics, and Management, 24–27, 2010.

Bosch, Brennan, and Holly Mansell. “Interprofessional Collaboration in Health Care: Lessons to Be Learned from Competitive Sports.” Canadian Pharmacists Journal. Canadian Pharmacists Association, July 25, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1715163515588106.

Burke, Alison. “Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively.” The Journal of Effective Teaching 11, no. 2 (2011): 87–95.

Cahapay, Michael. “Rethinking Education in the New Normal Post-COVID-19 Era: A Curriculum Studies Perspective,” 2020, 20. https://doi.org/10.29333/aquademia/8315.

Carpenter, Jeffrey, and Jennifer Pease. “Preparing Students to Take Responsibility for Learning: The Role of Non-Curricular Learning Strategies.” Journal of Curriculum and Instruction 7 (2013): 38–55. https://doi.org/10.3776/joci.2013.

Cheng, Kar Keung, Tai Hing Lam, and Chi Chiu Leung. “Wearing Face Masks in the Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Altruism and Solidarity.” The Lancet 0, no. 0 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30918-1.

Chi-Chung Cheng, Vincent, Shuk-Ching Wong, Vivien Wai-Man Chuang, Simon Yung-Chun So, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Siddharth Sridhar, Kelvin Kai-Wang To, et al. “The Role of Community-Wide Wearing of Face Mask for Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic Due to SARS-CoV-2.” Journal of Infection 81 (2020): 107–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.024.

Cook-Sather, Alison. “From Traditional Accountability to Shared Responsibility: The Benefits and Challenges of Student Consultants Gathering Midcourse Feedback in College Classrooms,” n.d.

Crawford, Joseph, Kerryn Butler- Henderson, Jürgen Rudolph, Bashar Malkawi, Matt Glowatz, Rob Burton, Paola A. Magni, and Sophia Lam. “COVID-19: 20 Countries’ Higher Education Intra-Period Digital Pedagogy Responses.” Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching 3, no. 1 (April 1, 2020): 20. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7.

Dhawan, Shivangi. “Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis.” Journal of Educational Technology Systems 49, no. 1 (June 20, 2020): 17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520934018.

d’Orville, Hans. “COVID-19 Causes Unprecedented Educational Disruption: Is There a Road towards a New Normal?” Prospects, 2020, 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09475-0.

Ekici, Ali, Pinar Keskinocak, and Julie Swann. “Modeling Influenza Pandemic and Planning Food Distribution.” Manufacturing &amp Service Operations Management 16, no. 1 (2014): 11–27. https://doi.org/10.1287/msom.2013.0460.

Farías, Pablo. “The Effect of Advergames, Banners and User Type on the Attitude to Brand and Intention to Purchase.” Review of Business Management 20 (2018): 194–209. https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v20i2.3784.

Feng, Shuo, Chen Shen, Nan Xia, Wei Song, Mengzhen Fan, and Benjamin Cowling. “Rational Use of Face Masks in the COVID-19 Pandemic.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8, no. 5 (2020): 436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X.

Ferrier-Kerr, Jenny. “Working Together: Collaborative Strategies for Developing Effective Professional Relationships in the Practicum,” 2012.

Fontaine, Michael. “Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The New Bottom Line?” International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol. 4, 2013.

Fowler, James A. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. United Sates of America: CIY Publishing, 2011.

Fritz, John. “Using Analytics to Nudge Student Responsibility for Learning.” New Directions for Higher Education 2017, no. 179 (September 1, 2017): 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20244.

Galanakis, Charis M. “The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (CoVID-19) Pandemic Crisis.” Foods. MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, April 1, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040523.

Ghosh, Haren, and Amit Bhatnagar. “On Measuring and Increasing the Effectiveness of Banner Advertising.” MIS Review 19, no. 1 (2013): 25–44. https://doi.org/10.6131/MISR.2013.1901.02.

Goel, Mridula, and Preeti E Ramanathan. “ScienceDirect Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility-Is There a Dividing Line?” Procedia Economics and Finance 11 (2014): 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00175-0.

Grashuis, Jasper, Theodoros Skevas, and Michelle Segovia. “Grocery Shopping Preferences during the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Sustainability 12 (2020): 5369. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135369.

“Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penanganan COVID-19.” Accessed July 28, 2020. https://covid19.go.id/.

Gülcan, Nur Yeliz. “Discussing the Importance of Teaching Ethics in Education.” In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174:2622–25, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.942.

Gunduz, Mevlut. “Educational Research and Reviews What Are the Teaching Responsibilities of Being a Teacher?” 11, no. 8 (2016): 623–29. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2643.

Harris, Albert L, Michael Lang, Dave Yates, and S E Kruck. “Incorporating Ethics and Social Responsibility in IS Education.” Journal of Information System Education 22, no. 3 (2019): 187.

Hassel, Stefanie, and Nathan Ridout. “An Investigation of First-Year Students’ and Lecturers’ Expectations of University Education.” Frontiers in Psychology 8, no. 2218 (2018): 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02218.

Hsieh, Nien-Hê. “The Responsibilities and Role of Business in Relation to Society: Back to Basics?” Society for Business Ethics Presidential Address 27, no. 2 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1017/beq.2017.8.

Hyseni Duraku, Zamira, and Linda Hoxha. “The Impact of COVID-19 on Education and on the Well-Being of Teachers, Parents, and Students: Challenges Related to Remote (Online) Learning and Opportunities for Advancing the Quality of Education,” 2020.

Jeder, Daniela. “ScienceDirect Teachers’ Ethic Responsibilities in the Practice of Education and Training.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 92 (2013): 432–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.697.

Kim, Mi-Na. “What Type of Face Mask Is Appropriate for Everyone-Mask-Wearing Policy amidst COVID-19 Pandemic?” J Korean Med Sci 35, no. 20 (May 2020).

Kumar, Sohail, Dua Azim, Sundus Nasim, and Shariq Haider Hashmi. “Dwindling Blood Reserves: An Ominous Downside of COVID-19 Pandemic.” Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102818.

Las Heras-Pedrosa, Carlos De, Pablo Sánchez-Núñez, and Jose Peláez. “Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Understanding during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain and Its Impact on Digital Ecosystems.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020): 5542. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155542.

Lauermann, Fani V. “Teacher Responsibility: Its Meaning, Measure, and Educational Implication,” 2013.

Lazarevaa, Larisa P., and Natalia V. Zavodevkina. “Personal and Professional Responsibilities of Students: Psychological and Pedagogical Factors of Real Opportunities.” IEJME — MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 11, no. 5 (2016).

Lestiyanawati, Rochyani, and Arif Widyantoro. “Strategies and Problems Faced by Indonesian Teachers in Conducting E-Learning System During COVID-19 Outbreak.” Literature, Linguistics and English Teaching) 2, no. 1 (May 31, 2020): 71–82.

Lewnard, Joseph A., and Nathan C. Lo. “Scientific and Ethical Basis for Social-Distancing Interventions against COVID-19.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Lancet Publishing Group, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30190-0.

Liguori, Eric, and Christoph Winkler. “From Offline to Online: Challenges and Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Education Following the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy 3, no. 4 (April 4, 2020): 346–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127420916738.

Liu, Wei, Xiao Guang Yue, and Paul B. Tchounwou. “Response to the Covid-19 Epidemic: The Chinese Experience and Implications for Other Countries.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7 (April 1, 2020): 2304. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH17072304.

Manchanda, Puneet, Jean-Pierre Dube, Khim Goh, and Pradeep Chintagunta. “The Effects of Banner Advertising on Consumer Inter-Purchase Times and Expenditures in Digital Environments.” Journal of Marketing Research 43, no. 1 (2006): 98–108. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.98.

Mc Cabe, Alan, and Una O’Connor. “Student-Centred Learning: The Role and Responsibility of the Lecturer.” Journal Teaching in Higher Education Critical Perspectives 19, no. 4 (2014): 350–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2013.860111.

Merrit, Jonathan. “Christian Cruelty in the Face of COVID-19 .” the Atlantic, April 24, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/04/christian-cruelty-face-covid-19/610477/.

Morley, Lyndon, and Angela Cashell. “Continuing Medical Education Collaboration in Health Care.” Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 48 (2017): 207–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2017.02.071.

Nicola, Maria, Zaid Alsafi, Catrin Sohrabi, Ahmed Kerwan, Ahmed Al-Jabir, Christos Iosifidis, Maliha Agha, and Riaz Agha. “The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review.” International Journal of Surgery 78, no. 1 (April 2020): 185–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018.

______. “The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review.” International Journal of Surgery 78 (June 1, 2020): 185–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018.

______. “The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review.” International Journal of Surgery. Elsevier Ltd, June 1, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018.

Nureye, Dejen, and Eyob Tekalign. “Blood Donations and Blood Banks: A Case on Supply and Demand for Blood in COVID-19 Pandemic.” EC Emergency Medicine and Care 4, no. 7 (2020): 1–7.

OECD. “Working and Learning Together: Six Policy Approaches to Support Effective Working Environments in Schools,” 2019. https://doi.org/10.1787/b7aaf050-en.

Olivia, Susan, John Gibson, and Rus’an Nasrudin. “Indonesia in the Time of Covid-19.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 56, no. 2 (May 3, 2020): 143–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2020.1798581.

Patrick Saxon, D. “Student Responsibility and Self-Directed Learning: An Interview with Christine McPhail.” Journal of Developmental Education 36, no. 3 (2013): 17.

Pereira, Jefferson Rodrigues, Caissa Veloso e Sousa, Eliane Bragança de Matos, Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende, Natália Xavier Bueno, and Álvaro Machado Dias. “To Donate or Not Donate, That Is the Question: An Analysis of the Critical Factors of Blood Donation.” Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 21, no. 8 (2016).

Peters, Michael A. “Love and Social Distancing in the Time of Covid-19: The Philosophy and Literature of Pandemics.” Educational Philosophy and Theory. Routledge, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2020.1750091.

Ramdhani, Abdullah, Muhammad Ali Ramdhani, and Abdusy Amin. “Writing a Literature Review Research Paper: A Step-by-Step Approach.” International Journal of Basic and Applied Science 3, no. 1 (2014): 47–56.

Sabo, Charles R. Isaiah: A Bible Commentary. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Amerika: Dorrance Publishing, 2020.

Saleh, Arifin, and Mujahiddin Mujahiddin. “Challenges and Opportunities for Community Empowerment Practices in Indonesia during the Covid-19 Pandemic through Strengthening the Role of Higher Education.” Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences 3, no. 2 (May 8, 2020): 1105–13. https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v3i2.946.

Sari, Dina Keumala, Rina Amelia, Ridha Dharmajaya, Liza Meutia Sari, and Nadya Keumala Fitri. “Positive Correlation Between General Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding COVID-19 Outbreak 1 Month After First Cases Reported in Indonesia.” Journal of Community Health, June 24, 2020, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00866-0.

Seymour-Walsh, Amy E., Anthony Weber, and Andy Bell. “Pedagogical Foundations to Online Lectures in Health Professions Education.” Rural and Remote Health 20, no. 2 (May 1, 2020): 6038. https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH6038.

Sherpa, Karma. “Importance Of Professional Ethics For Teachers.” International Education and Research Journal 4, no. 3 (March 15, 2018): 17.

Singh, Kh Tomba, and M Sanjoy Singh. “Ethics in Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business and Management 9, no. 2 (2013): 16–21.

Snyder, Hannah. “Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines.” Journal of Business Research 104 (2019): 333–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039.

Stanworth, Simon J., Helen V. New, Torunn O. Apelseth, Susan Brunskill, Rebecca Cardigan, Carolyn Doree, Marc Germain, et al. “Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Supply and Use of Blood for Transfusion.” The Lancet Haematology. Elsevier Ltd, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30186-1.

Stavridou, Marianthe, and Sumon Vangchuay. “Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility–A Human-Centre Approach to Business Ethics in the 21st Century.” ATDF Journal 9, no. 1 (2017): 78. https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-143841.

Šteh, Barbara, Jana Kalin, and Jasna Mažgon. “The Role And Responsibility of Teachers And.” Zbornik Instituta Za Pedagoska Istrazivanja 46, no. 1 (2014): 50–68. https://doi.org/10.2298/ZIPI1401050S.

Stückelberger, Christoph. “COVID-19 and the Ethical Responsibility of Universities.” University World News, April 11, 2020. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200410080845845.

Tanyid, Maidiantius. “Etika dalam Pendidikan: Kajian Etis tentang Krisis Moral Berdampak Pada Pendidikan.” Jurnal Jaffray 12, no. 2 (October 2, 2014): 235–50. https://doi.org/10.25278/jj71.v12i2.13.

Tulak, Harmelia, Hengki Wijaya, Susanna N. Rante, Nurmadiah Nurmadiah, and Helaluddin Helaluddin. “The Intercultural Competence in Education Era 4.0: A Learning Strategy for Students of Elementary School in Indonesia.” In Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Science and Technology in Elementary Education, ICSTEE 2019, 14 September, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Makassar, Indonesia: EAI, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.14-9-2019.2289961.

Utley, Bob. Paul’s First Letters: Galatians and 1 & 2 Thessalonians. Marshall, Texas: Bible Lesson International, 2013.

______. Paul’s Letters to a Troubled Church: 1 & 2 Corinthians. Marshall, Texas: Bible Lessons International, 2013.

______. The Conquest of the Promised Land: Joshua. Marshall, Texas: Bible Lesson International, 2013.

Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel. “The Value of Mitigating Epidemic Peaks of COVID-19 for More Effective Public Health Responses.” Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, March 23, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0135-2020.

Viner, Russell M, Simon J Russell, Helen Croker, Jessica Packer, Joseph Ward, Claire Stansfield, Oliver Mytton, Chris Bonell, and Robert Booy. “School Closure and Management Practices during Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review.” The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health 4, no. 5 (May 1, 2020): 397–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30095-X.

Waheed, Usman, Akhlaaq Wazeer, Noor Saba, and Zahida Qasim. “Effectiveness of WhatsApp for Blood Donor Mobilization Campaigns during COVID‐19 Pandemic.” ISBT Science Series, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/voxs.12572.

Wee, Bert Van, and David Banister. “How to Write a Literature Review Paper?” Transport Reviews 36, no. 2 (March 3, 2016): 278–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2015.1065456.

Winchester, Catherine L, and Mark Salji. “Writing a Literature Review.” Journal of Clinical Urology 9, no. 5 (2016): 308–12.

Zhang, Liwei, Huijie Li, and Kelin Chen. “Effective Risk Communication for Public Health Emergency: Reflection on the COVID-19 (2019-NCoV) Outbreak in Wuhan, China.” Healthcare 8, no. 1 (March 21, 2020): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8010064.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25278/jj.v18i2.525
Abstract viewed = 0 times | PDF downloaded = 0 times




Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

pISSN 1829-9474
eISSN 2407-4047

Copyright © Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray 2014.